What to know about glossitis

Along with swelling, glossitis can change the color and surface texture of the tongue because the condition causes the small bumps on the surface to shrink, creating a shiny, red surface.

Severe cases of glossitis can be painful and affect the way a person talks or eats.

There are different types of glossitis, including:

  • Acute glossitis. This often develops suddenly and can have severe symptoms.
  • Chronic glossitis. Chronic inflammation of the tongue is often the result of an underlying condition.
  • Atrophic glossitis also called Hunter’s glossitis. Here, the many of the tongue’s small bumps (papillae) shrink, which changes the surface of the tongue, making it appear glossy.
  • Median rhomboid glossitis. A Candida yeast infection often causes this type of glossitis.

Symptoms

The symptoms of glossitis vary from person to person. They may also differ according to the underlying cause of the condition.

Common symptoms of glossitis include:

  • a swollen tongue
  • pain in the tongue
  • burning or itching in the tongue
  • change in the texture of the surface of the tongue due to the change in the size and shape of papillae
  • different color of the tongue’s surface
  • loss of ability to speak or eat properly
  • difficulty swallowing

Causes

There is a variety of possible causes of glossitis, including:

Allergic reaction

When glossitis occurs due to an allergic reaction, a person is most likely to develop acute glossitis and have sudden tongue swelling and pain. An allergy to a particular food, drug, or specific irritant can cause this type of reaction.

Injury to the mouth

Injuries to the mouth, such as small cuts from braces or burns from hot food, might cause the tongue to inflame and swell.

When dental braces cause glossitis, a person is more at risk for chronic glossitis due to the risk of repeated injury to the mouth and tongue.

Diseases

Certain diseases can cause glossitis, especially those where nutritional deficiencies occur, such as celiac disease, protein-calorie malnutrition, and pernicious anemia.

Diseases that attack the immune system, such as Sjögren’s Syndrome, can cause changes in the mouth that lead to glossitis.

Infections

Bacterial, viral, and fungal infections can all cause glossitis. However, oral herpes, which is a viral infection, and fungal yeast infections are among the most likely infections to cause glossitis.

Nutritional deficiencies

Iron deficiencies occur when a person does not have enough iron in their blood. This can trigger glossitis since low levels of iron lead to low levels of myoglobin, a substance in the blood that plays a significant role in the health of all the muscles in the body, including the tongue.

Do braces hurt? What to expect

According to the American Dental Association, abnormal bites become apparent between the ages of 6 and 12 years, when children get their adult teeth. Orthodontic treatment typically begins between the ages of 8 and 14 years. In some cases, an adult may consider getting braces.

Although everyone is different, most people experience some pain for a few days when they first get braces and after brace tightening. However, others may experience only mild discomfort that goes away within a few hours.

Keep reading for more information on whether braces hurt and what to expect while they are on the teeth.

Do braces hurt?

Each person will have a different experience with braces, but the following should provide a general idea of what to expect at each stage of the treatment process.

Getting braces

Some people may have to wear spacers, or separators, between their teeth for a week or two before getting braces.

These spacers may feel tight and sore for a few days, resembling the feeling of having food caught between the teeth, but the discomfort should go away.

When an orthodontist first fits the braces, a person will not usually experience any immediate pain.

An orthodontist will often attach bands around the back molars. This process may be temporarily uncomfortable because it involves some pressure and can pinch, but it is not painful.

Once the bands are in place around the molars, the orthodontist will clean or “etch” the teeth with a solution that tastes a bit sour. They will then wash this off and apply glue to the face of the top or bottom set of teeth or both.

A person may dislike the taste of the etch and glue, but these steps should not cause any discomfort or pain.

When the glue is in place, the orthodontist mounts brackets to each tooth individually, using blue light to harden the glue. Again, this part of the process should not hurt.

Finally, when the brackets are in place, the orthodontist will connect them all with a wire. They will attach each end of the wire to the bands around the molars in the back of the mouth. The final step is adding elastic bands to hold the wire in place.

Wearing braces

When the braces first go on, a person might not experience any pain or discomfort straight away. However, within a few hours, the gentle pressure that the braces put on the teeth will start to take effect.

The pressure of the braces slowly pulling the teeth into alignment can create pain and discomfort, which could last from a day or two to about a week.

Some things to expect during the first week include:

  • sore gums
  • scrapes or sores on the inside of the cheeks due to the metal brackets rubbing against them
  • potential for cuts on the tongue if the person uses their tongue to feel the braces
  • the teeth may feel sore, especially when eating food

After some time, a person may not notice their braces as much as their body adjusts. However, for braces to work, the orthodontist needs to tighten them periodically.

When an orthodontist tightens the braces, they may:

  • replace the current wires
  • place or tighten springs
  • tighten bands on the braces to put additional pressure on the teeth

Typically, tightening occurs once a month or as necessary, depending on the person’s progress.

When tightening occurs, a person is likely to experience a level of discomfort similar to that when they first got the braces. In some cases, it may be less uncomfortable.

After tightening, many people only feel pain in the teeth and gums. The cheeks and tongue have usually adjusted to the braces by now, so new abrasions on these parts of the mouth are less likely.

Removing braces

Although everyone is different, braces typically stay on for about 1 to 3 years. When it is time to take the braces off, a person may experience some discomfort as an orthodontist removes them.

An orthodontist will remove the brackets, bands, and wires before cleaning the teeth to remove any glue. To complete the process, an orthodontist will fit the person for a retainer. A retainer is a device that helps keep teeth in their new position after braces.

People may need to wear a removable retainer for a set period after the removal of the brace, either during the day or just at night. The retainer should not cause any additional discomfort. Some retainers are permanent and will require an orthodontist to glue them to the teeth in a similar way to braces.

It is not uncommon for people to have trouble cleaning their teeth properly while wearing braces or a retainer. This difficulty can lead to cavities and tooth decay, which can be painful. Keeping the mouth as clean as possible with good oral hygiene and avoiding sticky, sugary foods can help prevent cavities and tooth decay.